Saturday, March 14, 2020
Health Behaviors as Mediators for the Effect of Partner Abuse on Infant Birth Weight Free Online Research Papers Health Behaviors as Mediators for the Effect of Partner Abuse on Infant Birth Weight The title of this study is Health Behaviors as Mediators for the Effect of Partner Abuse on Infant Birth weight. The research topic is reflective of the title. The research question stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Intimate partner abuse of pregnant women has been linked to the delivery of low birth-weight infantsÃ¢â¬ ( Kearney, 2004 p.2) . The purpose of this study was to explore the role of substance abuse such as smoking, alcohol, drugs and weight gain of less than 15 pounds as possible factors that contribute to lower infant birth-weight. The problem of this study is to determine whether intimate partner abuse of pregnant women correlates with lower birth weight. Also, the researchers wanted to find out if substance abuse and other variables such as poor nutrition and demographic risk factors put a woman at risk for low birth -weight infants. This study was done within ethical standards. Chart reviews were completed on the sample since they were standard questions and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need approval. However, the Institutional review board (IRB) did give approval for each prenatal care site to obtain other data throughout the study. In the review of literature, there were eleven references five years or less and 27 references older than five years. The review was concise in explaining the results of the study. The review does flow logically from the purpose of the study to completion. However, the article was somewhat confusing with all the variables. Both classic and current sources were included. Direct quotes as well as paraphrases were used considering the 38 references. There were many aspects to this study and support for the theory. Opposing literature was also cited in several instances.. The researchers reported their own statistical findings from their chosen analysis. They researched several data sources, and quoted where material was obtained in order to validate the study. For example, authors Curry et al., 1998; and Parker et al., 1994 had published an article on previous studies of abuse during pregnancy. Kearney et al., from this current article used some of the previously published infor mation and statistics, expanding on findings and including data in this research paper. The opposing theory recorded in this article was the effect of the correlation between the dependant and independent variables. Many instances indicated that there was little correlation between abuse and low birth-weight infants despite the fact that the purpose of this study was to see if there was a correlation between these variables. Several explanations were given as to why theories could not be proven according to revealed statistics and studies. However, there were many links as to what may cause low birth-weight infants. There was really no existing theory, so the researchers in this study used a conceptual framework to serve as the Ã¢â¬Å"impetus for the formulation of a theoryÃ¢â¬ (Niewswiadomy, p.95). The hypotheses was based on proposed theoretical relations (Kearney, p. 1). Negative factors such as alcohol use, and poor weight-gain less than 15 pounds may predict the birth-weight. Another theoretical relation was that variables such as low income and maternal age less than 20 years were factors that increase the likelihood of low birth-weight infants. There were many independent variables covered in this article which helped to close the gap between the purpose and the literature findings. The method by which this study was conducted was stated in the research paper. Thirteen prenatal care sites participated in the study. They conducted and evaluated chart reviews for Ã¢â¬Å"non-representative sample of women who had been screened during pregnancy for intimate partner abuse.Ã¢â¬ (Kearney , p.5) The population of these women included various types of payments for health insurance and some women paid their own health insurance. Ã¢â¬Å"A large number of charts (N =5,745) of women who enrolled for care over a 30 month period were reviewed. Screening by hospitals for possible abusive situations was less than 50%. So the final number for this analysis was (N = 1969) of the birth-weight that was actually known after birth ( Kearney, 2004 , p.5). Also, substance abuse data of these women was taken into consideration. The instruments used for this study were both valid and reliable. Instruments included the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) and a Multiple regression analysis. Violence to these women was easily detected through these instruments. Investigators conducted chart reviews and abstracted variables such as Ã¢â¬Å"demographic, obstetric, and birth outcome data from medical recordsÃ¢â¬ (Kearney , p. 6) . Multiple regression analysis was used with several variables that would account for possible decreases in birth-weight of newborn infants. The correlation of birth weight and abuse were studied. The data was assimilated and Ã¢â¬Ëin the sample of 1,969 women, small but significant zero-order correlations were seen between birth-weight and recent partner abuseÃ¢â¬ (Kearney, p.9). It was concluded that there are many factors that predict low birth-weight. The ones cited most were the single mother and negative health behaviors such as smoking and low weight gain, less than 15 pounds. Also, abuse was not a strong factor in predicting low infant birth-weight. However, smoking and drug use may increase the incidence. Single marital status often reflects low social support. Negative health behaviors and race (variables) was weakly linked to abuse. Generally, it depends on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social conditions. Ãâ¦buse can happen in any social status (Kearney, p. 9). This article rates number four in the critique category of satisfying the basic requirements of scientific research. The study was approved by the IRB and approval was maintained for each of the 13 sites for the duration of the data collection (Kearney, p.8) . This study can easily be used with other cultures in determining the impact of drugs and abuse. Mostly, the African American population was cited. This is because more African Americans are in a lower socio-economic status often times than are whites. They may not be able to have a well-balanced diet and as a result infant birth-weight could be slightly lower. Several variables were used, especially variables that could explain the low birth-weight of these infants. Some of these variables included demographic, medical and obstetric risk factors. These variables were all recorded (Kearney, 2004, p. 6) . The study was simplified by those conducting the data by use of the Abuse Assessment screen. The assessment screen was used for emotional and physical abuse during pregnancy. However, the yes or no questions may have not always had truthful answers. (Kearney, p. 12) Prior to beginning this research, nurses were trained in each of the 13 settings regarding proper use of this tool, in order to make the study valid. Variables only indirectly caused low birth-weight of infants. It is only natural for abused women to abuse themselves in other ways, due to stress. More often, the low socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, and lack of education regarding the use of illicit substances during pregnancy could cause low birth-weight infants. Single marital status was the strongest contributory factor in causing low birth-weight infants (Kearney, p.ll). The abuse often occurs when a significant other is also stressed due to many concerns surrounding the pregnancy such as financial stress. In the final discussion and conclusion, according to Kearney, obstetric covariates explained 27% of the variance in birth weight. Abuse explained a very small 0.2%, but significant portion of the variance in birth weight after control was used for the obstetric covariates of gestational age, iatrogenic prematurity, and preterm rupture of membranes.Ã¢â¬ Scientific methods to obtain the hypothesis were quite detailed, and there were many extraneous variables included that may cause the low birth-weight of infants. This article allowed the reader to see that other variables might be a topic in future studies for the prediction of low birth weight infants. For example, partner abuse may occur simultaneously with substance abuse, but is not the main factor. In conclusion, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s of this research study do recommend future studies regarding the role that other factors may play in an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s well being (Kearney, p. 12). The studies did make one aware that it is necessary for women to have comprehensive prenatal abuse screenings and more support during their pregnancies in order to assure the best possible outcome for both mother and baby. References Kearney, M., Munro, B., Ursula, K., Hawkins, J. (2004). Health Behaviors as Mediators for the Effect of Partner Abuse on Infant Birth Weight, Nursing Research, Volume 53 (1), pp 36-45 Research Papers on Health Behaviors as Mediators for the Effect of Partner Abuse on Infant Birth WeightThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseResearch Process Part OnePersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Incorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalCapital PunishmentAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementThe Project Managment Office System
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Why There Should Be a Drastic Reform to the Public Education System - Essay Example Drastic reforms in the education system would help improve the quality of school education. In this context, school education can be defined as a laborious means of learning. This notion is justified by the articles Ã¢â¬ËAgainst SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËLearning to ReadÃ¢â¬â¢ that illustrate the poor state of school education in modern society. School education is illustrated as a poor way of educating individuals, because the tedious aspect of learning does not serve to accomplish the objective of learning as an enjoyable concept, but rather a factor that must be executed to make citizens become literate. Lawrence W. Reedla in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"A new Direction for Education ReformÃ¢â¬ , argues that a new exciting direction will offer great success to the education system. Education is an instrument of the societal social order and so when the society changes, even education and its approach also need to change. Education roots penetrate deep into many aspects of the society an d are subject to a number of forces, including political those that sometimes threaten the performance of the sector. Despite the significance of education, public education has been neglected and faces many problems and thus needs drastic reforms to change the system. This paper looks at some of these problems which call for drastic change in the public education system. ... to provide tools that can be used to improve education system in all public schools and provide equal resources and funding for all institutions to improve performance of public schools in all regions of the country. The articles Ã¢â¬ËAgainst SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËLearning to ReadÃ¢â¬â¢ contrast in terms of the content and ideologies posed in each. The first article, Ã¢â¬ËAgainst SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢, illustrates how school is a tool that is formulated to fulfill an objective, rather than create a concept that is essential, as well as enjoyable, for students. It also provides evidence why school education can be labeled as a poor educational system. Ã¢â¬ËAgainst schoolÃ¢â¬â¢ provides the aspect of the problems that ails the school system and its effects on students which is usually poor performance. A change is thus needed in the public education system to find ways or ways of teaching that can encourage students to get involved in the earning process by developing interest t hrough enjoyment. The article is Ã¢â¬ËBoredom is a common condition for schoolteachersÃ¢â¬â¢; this paper demonstrates a major problem with school education (167). The methods used to teach are tedious and can affect how individuals will learn concepts and ideologies that relate to various topics and subjects. This highlights that teacher get tired of teaching, and from time to time, they are unable to teach students in accordance to expectations. It brings the idea of taking children to school into question, because they do not normally enjoy their experience in school. Students are more likely to resent school, and hate education in general. (170). Learning to read by Malcolm X illustrates that if learning is implemented under the right conditions, it can be an enjoyable experience referring to the feeling he got when learning in
Monday, February 10, 2020
Explain how Marketing Communications can be used to change customers attitudes and influence customers behaviour.(Marketing communications) - Essay Example The different models and the ways are discussed below that may change the attitudes and perceptions of the consumers. The marketing models discussed below for the marketing communications allows the marketing managers to know about the attitudes of the customer and then influence different strategies to influence their buying behavior. Attractive marketing campaigns and promotions need to be done so that a huge level of customer base can be attracted towards the organisation. This model allows us to focus on the attitude level of the consumer and how they interpret and learn about the new information that is being communicated to them through the advertising messages and other marketing mediums. It is important to influence the strength and usability of a product or service to the consumers in the marketing messages so that they can show their interest towards the product or service (Fitzgerald and Arnott 2000). The McGuireÃ¢â¬â¢s information processing model basically focuses on five elements. They are as follows: Exposure, attention level from the customers, Comprehension, Acceptance level ability of the consumers, and the Retention level rate of the consumers (Dahlen et al 2009). The information processing model developed by McGuire allows the researcher to learn about the attitudes and changes in behavior of the consumers for the communication aspects that take place while communicating the marketing information to the consumers about any product or service. According McGuire, the changes in behavior will occur if the communication takes place in a persuasive manner. The communication can be delivered in a persuasive manner by following the steps that follows ahead (Fill 2008). Firstly, the message that is to be communicated to the consumers must be presented in a clear and unambiguous manner. Then, the message must be clearly attended by the one who has delivered it. All
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Socialist Movement Responsible For Bringing Mussolini To Power Essay In 1922, following several years of hard work by the Fascists, Benito Mussolini was sworn in as Italys Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and Interior Minister by King Victor Emmanuel. However this event did not simply just happen, as many different factors built up to Mussolinis appointment. It is certainly arguable that the failure of the Socialist movement was responsible for bringing Mussolini to power, but it is undoubtedly not the only factor that led to this fateful appointment. However, a large majority of these other factors can be linked back to Socialist failures, and so therefore I believe that the failure of Socialism is the most important reason for Mussolini coming to power in 1922. Despite having a growing amount of support in the post-War period, the Socialists had a number of clear underlying weaknesses that Mussolini would be able to exploit, and which therefore were extremely beneficial to him gaining power. The party lacked real order and a strong leader, attributes that Mussolini intended to instil into his party and to exploit to gain support. Historians argue that the Fascists were able to drastically over exaggerate the threat of Socialism to those even remotely opposed to the Socialists, and evidence appears to back this theory up. A prime example of this is the events surrounding the proposed General Strike of August 1922. The Socialists plans to take action drastically backfired, when through a lack of support and a small resistance from the Fascists, their efforts failed after a day. The Fascists however dramatically played up both the danger that the Socialists were stirring up, and also how the Fascists had been the ones that had broken it up and saved the country from turmoil. By continually emphasising the supposedly vital role that they were playing, Mussolini and the Fascists were able to make themselves a permanent feature of Italian politics, where they would then be able to prove how vital they were to stability within Italy. Finally, it has been argued by many historians that the Socialists certainly had the capability to become a mighty force, yet its leaders believed that this was inevitable and therefore did not do what was necessary to make it a reality. I believe that Tom Behan bests describes this, when he comments that the leadership believed that all they had to do to win this revolution was wait for it to drop into their laps. In contrast, Mussolini and the Fascists took advantage of every opportunity presented to them and fought hard to gain the power that they did, and this is indeed another crucial aspect to why the Fascists were able to succeed whilst the Socialists capitulated. It is clear that Mussolini was able to use the Socialists failings and declining support to boost his own partys image, with these methods having a major effect on Mussolinis rise to power. As well as the direct failures of the Socialist party, there are also a number of other issues that have close ties with the Socialist movement and were therefore exploited by Mussolini and the Fascists to gain power. The conclusion of World War One brought with it a new Socialist following, and this resulted in the Socialist party asserting itself as a major contender for power within Italy for years to come. This increasingly large following was buoyed by the recent Communist revolution in Russia, and rumours that a similar uprising was on the horizon spread throughout Italy. However, along with the growing support for the Socialists came a large and growing opposition to their party, with many people fearful that an uprising similar to that found in Russia would have an extremely detrimental affect on their personal wealth. There was a clear divide within Italy between those who supported Socialism and those who were against it; you were either for or against, with little in betwe en. Included within this opposition was the growing number of people with strong Nationalist beliefs, whose desires for a strong Italy were ignited by the mutilated victory that they believed had be gained from the War. The Nationalists hatred of the Socialists and yearning for a powerful Italy gave Mussolini a window of opportunity that he was able to whole-heartedly exploit. After being previously excluded from the Socialist party and after seeing this opportunity, Mussolini set up his own party, the Fascists, not necessarily because of his beliefs, but to fuel his desire for power and to be back involved within politics. With this lack of a strong political ideology, Mussolini was able to create a party that incorporated ideas from both the Left and the Right, creating what he believed to be a combination that would generate support from the angry Nationalists yet not turn those with Socialists views completely against them. The use of violence by the Fascists against the Socialists was another extremely effective policy used by Mussolini, which was used to amplify the strength of the Fascist party and in doing so helped to gain support and ultimately bring Mussolini to power. It has already been established that those who were not supporters of Socialism were opposed to it, and this gave Mussolini a very large amount of people that he could attempt to bring around to his way of thinking. By forcefully opposing the Socialists, he was potentially appealing to around 60% of the population, and Mussolini believed that he would be able to turn a large proportion of these people towards Fascism. He felt that the fear and respect that the violence brought, accompanied with peoples desire for a strong leader, could lead to him gaining power, and it certainly proved to be a factor. Following the events of Fiume, which will be discussed later, Mussolini was fairly confident in the knowledge that violence towards his opposition would gain respect and support from the masses. DAnnunzio had confirmed this, and with a similar ideology, Mussolini believed that he could gain success on an even larger scale. Finally, this violence was also able to exploit the weaknesses in the Liberal government and remove them as a serious contender for long term power within Italy. The Liberal government had proved in Fiume that they were weak and could not stand up to violence, and this again proved to be the case. They could not stand up to Mussolinis overly-exaggerated strength, and this turned many influential figures, such as King and his family, away from the party as they too looked for strong and decisive leaders who would be able to further Italys status. With so much support being taken away from the other contending parties through the use of violence, it enabled the Fascists to take full advantage, and so is therefore an extremely important reason why Mussolini was able to come to power. Another important aspect of Mussolinis rise to power is the effects of the 1919 and 1921 elections. After only gaining 5,000 votes in the 1921 elections, which was approximately one vote for every thirty-four gained by the Socialists, Mussolini and the Fascist party realised that they would need to change their ideology if they were to gain power at any stage in the near future. Therefore, Mussolini decided that it would be necessary to change his partys policies to turn them away from the perception that they were still a Left Wing party. The Fascists believed that instead of fighting the PSI for the Left Wing votes, they would be better off moving toward more Right Wing polices to take advantage of the large amount of people who were opposed to Socialism. By taking advantage of this hostility, and by using many of the other actions that have and will be discussed, he believed that he would be able to gain power within Italy, and this certainly proved to be the case. This is also an extremely important point when analysing how strongly Mussolini felt about his partys ideologies. It is widely argued that he was purely interested in gaining power by using whatever means he had available to him, and the ease at which he shifted his ideology appears to back up this theory. Following the 1919 elections, the elections of 1921 also played a vital role in Mussolinis rise to power. For the first time, Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti placed the Fascist party on his electoral role. Giolitti enjoyed the support of the Fascists, and tolerated the violence used against their opposition and to gain control of local governments. His belief that the Fascists would prove to be a more moderate and responsible party upon taking power is an excellent example of how Mussolini was able to manipulate important people to achieve his ambitions throughout his rise to power. Within the election itself, the Socialists (approximately 30%) and the Catholic party gained the most votes, but with such conflicting ideas they in effect cancelled each other out. This meant that a coalition Liberal government became the dominant party, which played right into Mussolinis hands. With such an easily exploitable party in control, the Fascists would be able to prove how important they were to Italys stability by proving how weak and ineffective their opposition were. Again, this is another important factor as to how Mussolini was able to come to power in 1922, and as we have seen, has a large deal to do with the Socialists inadequacies and failures. On the contrary, there are also a number of aspects that are very important in understanding how Mussolini and the Fascist party were able to come to power in such a short period of time but that are not related to the Socialist partys failures. The first of these are the events that occurred in Fiume through the actions of Gabrielle DAnnunzio. Angry at the so-called mutilated victory, many Nationalists believed that action had to be taken so that Italy could prove itself as a great nation, and to do this some believed it was necessary to forcibly take control of areas that the people believed to be rightfully theirs. This led to Gabrielle DAnnunzio, the writer and war-hero, to take matters into his own hands. With 2,000 other Nationalists, DAnnunzio marched on Fiume and took control from the inter-Allied occupying forces. These events were extremely important in aiding Mussolinis rise to power, as he was able to see the weaknesses that he could exploit within Italy, and used a large amount of DAnnunzios ideas for how to make his party appear more powerful. Features such as the wearing of military uniforms and black shirts, using the Roman salute, giving grand speeches to his followers at rallies (which included the use of rhetoric), using castor oil to humiliate opponents, and his method of government were all copied from DAnnunzio, as Mussolini could see how successful they had been when previously used. Also, the events illustrated how force could be used to gain and retain power, and therefore the weaknesses of the current government. It became clear to Mussolini that if he used violence to achieve his aims, it was highly likely that the government would be incapable of stopping him, especially if he played up his partys strength to make them appear unstoppable. This proved to be greatly important for Mussolini in 1922 as the time of his appointment approached, as if the King and government had stood up to him he would have been defeated, but he had played up his strength so much that nobody was willing to challenge them. The next reason that led to Mussolinis appointment, that did not regard Socialism, was the fact that there was a genuine liking for Mussolinis own individual qualities and the Fascist ideology as a whole. As we have already seen, Mussolini acquired many of the ideas that DAnnunzio employed and used his own qualities to make them effective tools for the Fascist party. Mussolini was able to give grand speeches to his supporters, which showed others that he had confidence in what he was doing and this was enough to turn some people to the Fascist way of thinking. The fear that had been generated in recent years following events like the Biennio Rosso diminished in Mussolinis presence, this being comforting for many people following years of turmoil. Many people purely craved a decisive and powerful leader, not necessarily sticking with their traditional parties, but following anybody that they believed would get something done and improve the state of their country. Mussolini offered this, and this is therefore one of the many possible solutions for why he was able to gain power in such a short time period. It has already been made clear that the prolonged weakness shown by the Liberal government greatly helped Mussolinis rise to power, and this can be examined further. With Mussolini already gaining the support of those opposed to Socialism, he was also able to not only turn people away from the Liberal government, but to use them to make his own party appear more powerful and more effective. The Liberals were failing with both internal and foreign issues, and so any successes made by the Fascists were amplified by these demonstrations of weaknesses by the Liberals, therefore gaining support for the Fascists and aiding Mussolini in his quest to gain power. Next, the Liberal government were not able to deal with the violence used by the Fascists towards the Socialists, and this made it appear both acceptable and a necessary step to gaining a secure Italy. The events of July 1921, when only a dozen officers were able to defeat nearly five hundred Fascists through force, shows that the thuggish actions of the Fascists could have been comfortably dealt with, yet the Liberals and the Monarchy still did not conclusively act. With Giolitti also adding the Fascist party to his electoral role and therefore assuring their position as a genuine political force to be reckoned with, people no longer saw the Fascists as a radical party attempting to cause chaos, but as a party who really knew how to get things done. In comparison to the Liberals, Mussolini and the Fascist party appeared to be a lot more competent and effective alternative, and only boosted Mussolini on his route towards power. Finally, it is impossible to ignore the role that the King throughout Mussolinis rise played, King Victor Emmanuel III. Described as a man who was cowardly, pessimistic and lacking in confidence, it was clear that it would not take much for Mussolini to gain power when the opportunity arose, and it is widely argued that if a stronger man had been King then Mussolini would have never achieved his position of power. With the threat of the March on Rome rising, he made his decision regarding the Prime Ministers call for Martial Law before quickly changing it, this proving the last straw and emphasising the Kings weakness and incompetence. If he had stood by his original decision and taken forceful action against Mussolini and his proposed March on Rome, then it is highly probable that Mussolini and his party would have been crushed there and then. Historians argue that Mussolini was sure that if the King and government had used force against him his plans would have failed, backed up by the evidence that he had an escape plan to Switzerland prepared. However, the weak King did no such thing and the hype that Mussolini had created about the strength of his party and men was just too much for him to handle. Even with the debate that Mussolini was not entirely in control of the Fascists and was therefore pressurised into the sudden push for power, the facade that had been created was large enough to see the Fascists through, and so can therefore be regarded as insignificant. The Kings actions were just the final deeds that enabled Mussolini to come to power, yet even at such a late stage it is clear that, with just a small bit of courage, Mussolini could have been stopped, and so therefore the Kings role can be deemed a vital aspect of Mussolini coming to power. On balance, although not the only reason that culminated in Mussolinis rise to power, it is clear that the failure of Socialism was the most important factor that led to his appointment. As well as the direct failures of the Socialists that Mussolini was able to use to his advantage, many other important issues can be linked closely to the weaknesses of the Socialists which were therefore exploited my Mussolini. Historians such as Behan also acknowledge how the capacity was there for the Socialists to succeed, but unlike the Fascists were unable to capitalise on this. This accumulates to give the impression that although the other ideas are very important, Socialism and its links with other problems was the most important of all of these, and it is can unquestionably be argued that if there had been no Socialist party present between 1919 and 1922, then Mussolini may never have got to his position of power.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
There is a beautiful marriage between technique and meaning in poetry. If one can fully probe the configuration of poetry; one will see this marriage. Their mind will be seduced by the words, their heart ensnares by its gist, and finally by way of the poem literary devices can be captured involuntarily. A great model of the essence of this relationship is the classic poem Ã¢â¬Å"HarlemÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes. In this poem, the author approaches the universal despair of dreams being deferred and underlines the fallouts of it. His precise techniques that influence this poem help it emerge into a metaphorical warning statement about dreams becoming disregarded in life. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s specific uses of similes and metaphors allows for interpretation by his readers regarding the main idea behind his poem, and in this essay I will examine how these literary techniques help to ameliorate the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning. The use of similes in Ã¢â¬Å"HarlemÃ¢â¬ creates a serious mood and emphasizes the theme. In the beginning of the poem the author asks a question about what will happen to a dream when deferred. The simile...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The Scientific American article Ã¢â¬Å"Why do whales beach themselves? Ã¢â¬ published on June 1, 2009, bring the polemic and controversial reasons about the phenomenon observed in the last years when more than Fifty-five false killer whales were stranded on a South African beach over the weekend. The scientists still do not fully understand why mass stranding happen, and if we should be worried about this event. Whales are the largest marine mammals in the world Ã¢â¬â the smallest species weigh in at several tons. When whales beach themselves, they can die simply from the crushing weight of their own bodies or from overheating due to their blubber, which is needed for insulation in cold ocean waters. Stranding are of several types, said Susan Parks, a research associate in the Environmental Acoustics program in the Applied Research Laboratory at Penn State. Individual stranding often are caused by isolated incidents such as sickness, injury, or old age Said Parks, Ã¢â¬Å"Entanglement in fishing gear is one of the leading causes of mortality for marine mammals, many of which wash up on shore dead or injured. The tide carries these whales into shallow water, depositing them on the beach. Then there are multiple-species stranding, explained Parks. Ã¢â¬Å"This occurs when different species of marine mammals beach themselves at the same time and place, suggesting that they all died from the same cause,Ã¢â¬ she said. Scientists have been researching possible causes of this phenomenon. One explanation involves the whale Ã¢â¬Å"podÃ¢â¬ social structure. For instance, whales that travel in pods use a Ã¢â¬Å"strength in numbersÃ¢â¬ survival strategy, but this can backfire when the dominant whale runs aground. According to Parks, Ã¢â¬Å"The rest of the pod may follow a disoriented or sick whale onto shore. Ã¢â¬ Another theory is that pods may venture too close to the beach when hunting prey or evading predators and become trapped by low tides. Weather also may play a part in beaching. Explained Parks, Ã¢â¬Å"In 1998, there was a major stranding on the West Coast of the United States where many different species, particularly sea lions, starved to death. Ã¢â¬ This mass stranding, she added, was thought to be caused by El Nino's effects on sea-water surface temperatures. Many marine mammals depend on plankton and kelp that thrive in cool, nutrient-rich waters. In the case of sea lions, when food is scarce, the adults wean pups earlier and leave them behind while they hunt for fish in colder waters further offshore. These young seals are often the ones that become stranded. Some theories about beaching suggest that defects in a whale's navigation system may be the cause. According to Parks, Ã¢â¬Å"The problem with these theories is that we don't know exactly how whales navigate. Ã¢â¬ Some species travel vast distances every year and find their way back to where they started. Right whales, for example, travel more than a thousand miles from the Gulf of Maine to the coastal waters of Florida and Georgia to give birth, and then swim back to northern waters. Said Parks, it is known that some whales use echolocation to identify objects in their environment but Ã¢â¬Å"it is unclear whether these species need to rely on it for navigation. Ã¢â¬ Some researchers have proposed that whales navigate by using passive listening to hear waves crashing against the coast or steer themselves via undersea topography or the angle of the sun. However, as interjected Parks, Ã¢â¬Å"the distance that animals can see is often very limited in the ocean, and isn't thought to be a useful for long-distance navigation. Ã¢â¬ Another navigation theory proposed recently is that whales have a bio-magnetic sense, which allows them to sense magnetic fields in the earth's crust. Ã¢â¬Å"This would be similar to how homing pigeons orient themselves,Ã¢â¬ explained Parks. Whales following magnetic field lines could beach themselves in areas where the field lines intersect with the coast. A study in the UK by Margaret Klinowska found a correlation between local magnetic field lines and sites where whales were stranded alive,Ã¢â¬ added Parks. However, more research is needed to solidify the connection. Several multiple-species stranding have occurred following military use of mid-frequency sonar, sparking public outcry. Ã¢â¬Å"One reason for the level of concern about these incidents is that they involved the rarely seen beaked whales,Ã¢â¬ explained Parks. Ã¢â¬Å"These whales were found beached five, sometimes 10 at a time. The problem with the sonar theory,Ã¢â¬ she added, Ã¢â¬Å"is that we still don't fully understand the cause and effect mechanism of how sonar might affect whales or why it might affect beaked whales in particular. Ã¢â¬ For many years, professor Chris Parsons has been tracking the patterns of mass whale stranding around the world. In his most recent paper, Ã¢â¬Å"Navy Sonar and Cetaceans: Just how much does the gun need to smoke before we act? Ã¢â¬ Parsons and his co-authors bring together all of the major whale and dolphin stranding in the past eight years and discuss the different kinds of species that have been affected worldwide. They also strongly argue for stricter environmental policies related to this issue. Ã¢â¬Å"Generally, if there is a large whale stranding, there is a military exercise in the area,Ã¢â¬ says Parsons. Ã¢â¬Å"Sonar is killing more whales than we know about. Ã¢â¬ Parsons is a national delegate for the International Whaling CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific and conservation committees and on the board of directors of the marine section of the Society for Conservation Biology. He has been involved in whale and dolphin research for more than a decade and has conducted projects in South Africa, India, China and the Caribbean as well as the United Kingdom. Research into the cause of stranding is ongoing, noted Parks. Meanwhile, many coastal areas have rescue groups to find and rehabilitate these stranded mammals and to release them back into the wild. When the rehab patient weighs in at more than 40 tons, which can be a whale of a job. As the article stand, statistically, we are only able to determine the cause of a stranding in about 50 percent of all cases worldwide. In some cases, it is obvious, like a ship strike leaving an animal in poor condition. In the northeastern United States, pneumonia is a common cause of stranding. We see other diseases and trauma, such as shark attack on whales or dolphins or attacks by members of the same species. Poisonous Ã¢â¬Å"red tidesÃ¢â¬ will also affect marine mammals. Some stranding have been speculated to be related to anomalies in the magnetic field, or from parasitic worms in the brain affecting co-ordination and balance, to whales being trapped as they follow prey inshore. There are other possible causes: Predators such as orcas or sharks may force the marine mammals inshore. In a 1993 pilot whale stranding at Golden Bay, orcas were seen patrolling outside the spit. The whales might have sought sanctuary in shallow waters because of the threat. Deep-water toothed whales with strong social bonds become stranded in a group more frequently than other species. If an individual is sick, or old and dying, the rest of the herd will come to its aid, even if they endanger themselves by venturing too close inshore. These are species that are unusual, that are beautiful, and important for the ecology of our seas. If there is an activity humans are doing precipitating these stranding we need to know about itÃ¢â¬âwe need to make decisions about pollutants, shipping noise and sonar. Are we in some way contributing to declining health of critical populations, like the northern right whale? is asking the author of the article himself. More articles in the newspapers like the Ã¢â¬Å"Nearly 200 whales stranded on Australian beachÃ¢â¬ published on 03/01/09 in USA TODAY, or the statistics found in New Zealand where almost 9,000 whales and dolphins were stranded between 1978 and 2004 give us the idea of how serious this phenomena became . The concern is that only about a quarter of them were saved for all the whales in New Zealand. Species included GreyÃ¢â¬â¢s beaked whale, the Pygmy sperm whale, the sperm whale, the long-finned pilot whale, and the false killer whale (which is actually a dolphin). All the article and scientists are giving vague explanation about those events, but nobody found with certitude way the whales are stranding, which give us the uncertainty if we know well our ecosystem and its functions, and how we can avoid those tragedies.
Monday, January 6, 2020
There are many articles and newspapers about how bad the world is becoming overpopulated. The overpopulation of humans and animals is a constant threat to people way of life on earth. Monbiot states, Ã¢â¬Å"The growth in human numbers, they say, is our foremost environmental threatÃ¢â¬ (Monbiot 1). Suggestions for extending womenÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive choices should be made, and the world population would drop dramatically because of this. George states, Ã¢â¬Å"If this need were answered, the impact of population growth would be significant, though not decisive: the annual growth rate of 83 million would be reduced to 62 millionÃ¢â¬ (Monbiot 1). Because the population of the world is increasing drastically, many problems are created and produces many effects. Many people believe that China should do away with the Ã¢â¬Å"Population Bomb.Ã¢â¬ The population bomb is referred to China having a rule where the country said citizens could have only one child. 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